Senegal’s upcoming construction of desalination plant


In Senegal, particularly in Dakar, drinking water needs will only increase in the coming years. The current production capacity is 421,000 cubic meters per day, which is insufficient to provide for estimated future requirements.  The region will require in 2025, 659,000 cubic meters per day and 963,000 cubic meters per day in 2035.

The drinking water supply system for the Dakar region has a high dependence on Lake Guiers and groundwater. Lake Guiers supplies 45 percent of the raw water and 55 percent is from groundwater. However Lake Guiers is located 250 km from Dakar, which increases the costs of investment, treatment, transportation and exploitation. There is a need to build new infrastructure to strengthen the drinking water production in this area.


So the State, through the National Water Company of Senegal (SONES) and with the input of Japan, has approved the construction of a seawater desalination plant. This treatment plant will have a production capacity of 50,000-100,000 cubic meters per day. Plant construction will begin in January 2018 near the famous lighthouse of Mamelles. In addition to the desalination plant construction, the project also includes the replacement of 460 km of distribution pipes inherited from colonization in Dakar.

The estimated total cost of this project is 137 billion FCFA, of which 56 million FCFA is for the desalination plant infrastructure, 56 million FCFA is for the replacement of old pipes in the Dakar distribution network, and the remainder is for project management services, and financial and physical contingencies. JICA, the Japan International Cooperation Agency, is funding the project on very good concessional terms. For example, the interest rate is less than 0.7 percent for 30 years. The implementation of the desalination plant, like all other investments, will not impact the price of water for consumers.

The project launched in 2015. After a two year implementation period beginning in 2019, the plant is expected to be commissioned in 2021.


2017 Quarter 1 Progress of SSD Project

Sanitation Service Delivery (SSD) aims to increase the use of sanitation and safe disposal of fecal waste by influencing the region’s sector to create a more effective, efficient and inclusive market for the urban poor in Benin, Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana.

Market Constraints

An urban sanitation market landscape analysis was completed in the three countries. This analysis identified the causes of market failures and intervention areas that would deliver the greatest impacts. During this analysis, a team assessed existing sanitation products and services, visited markets, and conducted interviews with producers, sales staff, and consumers. This was essential to gaining an understanding of market actors’ roles, expectations, incentives, behaviors, and financing options, and chokepoints in the supply chain. The following market constraints were identified in all three countries:

  • Sanitation products perceived as expensive by low-income consumers;
  • Lack of local manufacturing and installation capacity;
  • Lack of affordable options for fecal sludge collection and storage;
  • Mistrust between consumers and service providers, and lack of standards to influence performance;
  • Low capacity of vacuum truck operators (VTOs) to completely empty tanks;
  • Lack of finance for new VTO equipment; and,
  • VTOs not earning sufficient margins.

Prototyping Improvements

In order to address these key market failures and create a more efficient, inclusive sanitation market for the urban poor, product and service delivery improvements were prototyped in Year 2. Prototypes included prefabricated septic tanks in Cote d’Ivoire; improved pit latrines in Benin; landlord finance models in Cote d’Ivoire and Benin; and interactive call centers to help optimize the work of VTOs. The team was also involved with the development of finance mechanisms to help business start-ups for entrepreneurs building toilets; the innovation of new sanitation technologies and services; and actionable learning to influence policy and practice at scale. The benefits of strengthening the enabling environment through better collaboration with the private sector and the development of regulatory frameworks has been advocated to municipal and national governments throughout the project.

Private Sector Scale-up

After testing these prototypes and service models, the team is now working with private sector entities, such as concrete manufactures and VTOs, to develop scale-up strategies for the prefabricated septic tanks in Cote d’Ivoire and offset pit latrines with SaTo pans in Benin. In Cote d’Ivoire and Benin, a call center is also being developed to improve the quality and reduce the cost of mechanized septic tank emptying. To accelerate toilet sales in Ghana, sales agents and artisans are being trained and community marketing events are being held. Ghanaian private sector entities are also helping the team introduce the pre-fabricated septic tanks that will be scaled-up in Cote d’Ivoire. In Kumasi, Ghana, the Clean Team is testing a mobile money model to reduce operations cost and increase profitability with support from SSD.

Recent Program Highlights

  • Installation of first on-site pilot septic tank in Yopougon, Cote d’Ivoire using ferro-cement. Ferro-cement is a system of reinforced mortar applied over a layer of metal mesh attached to a grid of 6mm rebar. This technique creates a strong and light structure.
  • GIS mapping of the latrine toilet and septic tank supply chains in the project districts of Cote d’Ivoire and Benin. This mapping facilitates an understanding of service provider distribution, which can be used to improve service coverage. When a gap is identified, such as if a concrete ring manufacturer is not located nearby, a local business is identified to fill the gap to minimize transportation costs.
  • Implementation of pit latrines pilot phase using the SaTo pan as a user interface in 25 households in Abomey-Calavi, Benin.
  • During the workshops with Ghanaian WASH sector stakeholders, it was recommended that more builders, craftsmen, and entrepreneurs should be recruited and trained. Addressing the insufficient number of skilled artisans in the market would improve program implementation.

SSD is a five-year, $15.8 million USAID/West African regional urban sanitation project launched in October 2014. SSD is implemented by Population Services International in collaboration with PATH and Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor. Check out their recent progress on their Facebook page.


USAID WA-WASH has Improved the Living Conditions of over 1 Million

The USAID-West Africa WASH Program started in 2011 in three West African countries – Ghana, Niger and Burkina Faso. It is now nearing completion at the end of 2017. The program’s intervention focus on the Water, Hygiene, Sanitation, Climate Change, Food Security and Environment sectors. Lakhdar Boukerrou, the Regional Director of the program, organised a workshop to present the program’s achievements so to capitalize them in the future. The workshop was held on June 1, 2017 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Through papers, presentations and projections, the workshop participants discovered the program’s achievements by area of activity and location. Because of the program, over 65,000 people in Ghana, Niger and Burkina Faso have gained access drinking water estimated at more than 132 million litres. More than 62,000 people also have improved sanitation conditions through the construction of 8,192 toilets. The program has also facilitated the installation of more than 5,800 water points for hand washing with all necessary equipment. Also trough this program, nearly 10,000 farmers have benefited from better tools and technologies to increase their productivity and improve their resilience to the effects of climate change.

Implementation Process

The WA-WASH program, implemented with the support of the Florida International University (FIU), was carried out in two phases. In Phase I (2011-2015), the USAID WA-WASH program worked on innovative implementation approaches to improve sustainable access to drinking water services, adequate sanitation, and food safety. Adaptation to climate change, gender mainstreaming and knowledge management were also themes developed in this phase.

During Phase II (2015-2017), USAID WA-WASH directly supported the USAID Water Strategy. The program also enabled Phase I beneficiaries to serve as trainers and promoters of lessons learned and techniques to benefit their grassroots community.

Check out more photos from the workshop!

AfWA Executive Office received training in project management

The project failure rate in Africa is estimated at nearly 70%, according to Malian international consultant Sadio Sissoko.


The reason for the failure of projects undertaken on the continent can be explained by many factors. Indeed, most failures can result from “technical” causes (insufficient budget, poor deployment of resources, poor organization), human factors, generally referred to as “resistance to change”: attitude and behavior of project beneficiaries and project manager.


A long list of principles is urgent to understand, in order to guarantee a better chance of success for a project. Here are some of the reasons that led to this training workshop on Project Management for the AfWA Executive Directorate. A 5-day training, given by a Malian expert from the CICF firm, highlighted the fundamental procedures for the successful execution of projects.


It should be noted that this umpteenth training session falls under the AfWA’s staff capacity building chapter, as set out in the AfriCap programme of the African Water Association financed by the USAID West Africa Office for a period of 4 years.


Lilongwe STC: Professionals of the water and sanitation sector meet in MALAWI

The African Water Association (AfWA) held the 75th meeting of its Scientific and Technical Council (STC) from November 21 to 25, 2016. 120 delegates from 19 countries gathered in Lilongwe, the capital City of Malawi, for a 5-day event that provided an overview of the water and sanitation situation in Malawi and in Africa.

The STC’s session on “Climate Change and Sustainable Access to Drinking Water in Africa” was opened by Malawi’s Minister of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Resources Development, Dr. George CHAPONDA, who also visited the mini-exhibition of this event.

Following the opening day of the Open-Door Day, the meeting continued with the committees’ sessions and a session of the AfWA Program Committee. In addition, a workshop on Technological Innovations in the Water Industry was conducted by the English company ISLE.

The committees concluded their sessions on Thursday, November 24, 2016, with the reports on their work, in the presence of Mr. Alfonso CHIKUNI, Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of Lilongwe Water Board.

The STC closed the curtain on its meeting on Friday, November 25, 2016 with a field visit to the host utility’s drinking water production facilities, followed by a recreational and tourist visit to Lake Malawi, the main source of raw water extraction of the country for drinking water supply and agriculture. The next meeting of the STC is scheduled to be held from February 13 to 17, 2017 in Morocco.

The African Water Association (AfWA) and the SSD Program are working to improve the quality of water and sanitation in West Africa

It is now done: the AfriCap program of AfWA and Sanitation Service Delivery program of PSI have officially started. These are two programs funded by the West Africa Regional Office of the US Agency for International Development (USAID-WA). The Africap program will enable AfWA to reinforce its capacities to better fulfill its missions, promote knowledge sharing and improve water quality by strengthening the capacities of the laboratories. The second program, SSD, piloted by Population Service International, will provide basic sanitation services to households in distress.


This presentation ceremony marking the official start of these two programs took place on Friday, December 9, 2016 in Abidjan and brought together several personalities from the water and sanitation sector, as well as technical partners and donors.


Opening a series of addresses, Mr. Sylvain USHER, the Executive Director of the African Water Association, presented the objectives pursued by his organization before pointing out the urgency of granting substantial funding to the water and sanitation sector, whose impacts on public health are often disastrous if water resources are not properly treated. With the support of his country to the African continent, the representative of the USAID Office in Côte d’Ivoire, Jeff Bryan, recalled that the United States is investing significant resources in development programs such as AfriCap and SSD to strengthen support to the countries in the sub-region in achieving their national development goals. To further inform the audience on these two different programs, the respective coordinators, Giles Djagoun on behalf of AfriCap, Capacity Building Programs of AfWA, and Serge Milord Seiba on behalf of the SSD Program of PSI, in turn, presented their objectives, missions, targets and expectations.


Mr. Tape Zékré, Special Adviser on Sanitation Issues, welcomed and encouraged the joint initiative of AfWA and PSI on behalf of the Minister for Urban Sanitation and Urban Waste Management of Côte d’Ivoire, Anne Désiré OULOTO. He also indicated that the Government is ready to support these various programs, whose results, in the long-run, will contribute to improving water quality and sanitation services for the populations in the sub-region in general and in Cote d’Ivoire in particular.

The African Water Association outlines its action plan for 2017

The Executive Office of the African Water Association organized its annual review and planning workshop for the year 2017 in Grand Bassam, on the outskirts of Abidjan, from December 14 to 16, 2016.


The three-day meeting was held in a hotel of the historic city and brought together some partners of AfWA, namely the USAID WA WASH Office, ONAD and PSI. At the end of the second half of 2016, this review workshop was an opportunity to take stock of all the activities carried out over the past 6 months by the various departments of the Executive Office, namely Management and Administration, Communication and Marketing, Finance and Accounting, and Programs. The first day brought together only the staff of AfWA and was the opportunity for each agent to explain to all the employees his or her roles and missions within the Executive Office.

Group sessions subsequently allowed the various departments to review the activities that had been successful or unsuccessful during this half-year, while proposing corrective measures for the future. During the second day and in the presence of the partners of AfWA, the various departments presented an assessment of their activities according to the objectives assigned since July 2016 and defined their projections for 2017. This approach is in line with the monitoring / evaluation policy for the activities of the Executive Office of the African Water Association, which is positioning itself as a strong, competent and structured organization according to the best standards. Along with the various presentation sessions of the action plans of each department, suggestions and contributions were proposed during the exchange sessions in order to improve the performances of all the teams.

The meeting of Grand Bassam has given rise to strong and clear resolutions that will guide the governance and all the activities of the African Water Association for the next 6 months before a new review is organized in June 2017. At the end of the workshop, the Executive Director thanked all the staff for their participation in the various sessions and encouraged each agent to keep his or her indicators on a growth curve in order to consolidate the status of the African Water Association as a leader in the implementation of the WASH sector policies.

Association Africaine de l’Eau: Fin des assises de Luanda sur l'eau, l'assainissement et les changements climatiques

Association Africaine de l’Eau: Fin des assises de Luanda sur l’eau, l’assainissement et les changements climatiques

Le Conseil Scientifique et Technique de l’Association Africaine de l’Eau s’est réuni du 25 au 27 juillet 2016 pour faire le point des activités menées et définir la feuille de route des groupes de travail qui le composent. La cérémonie d’ouverture, présidée par le ministre de l’hydraulique et de l’énergie d’Angola, Joao Baptista Borges, s’est déroulée au Centre de Convention Talatona de Luanda.

Ces assises qui se tiennent 5 mois après le 18ème congrès de l’AAE, ont porté sur le thème « CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES ET ACCES DURABLE A L’EAU POTABLE ET AUX SERVICES D’ASSAINISSEMENT EN AFRIQUE ». Plusieurs présentations ont permis de mieux faire connaitre l’AAE et ses différents programmes, de faire l’état des lieux de la situation de l’eau et de l’assainissement en Angola.

Les trois commissions spécialisées de cet organe se sont retrouvées en groupes restreints pour se pencher sur les thématiques qui leur sont dédiées, à savoir : Le management, la gestion technique et l’assainissement.

La première commission a axé sa réflexion autour de trois activités, à savoir le renforcement des activités de la Task Force Communication et partage des connaissances, l’adoption d’une stratégie d’appui à la formation des Jeunes Professionnels, et l’évaluation de la représentativité des femmes dans les secteurs de l’eau et de l’assainissement. La deuxième commission spécialisée a articulé ses travaux autour des questions liées à l’eau non-facturée et à la qualité de l’eau. Enfin, la troisième commission spécialisée s’est attelée à présenter le niveau d’avancement du projets RASOP, à mettre en forme le projet “Toilettes pour tous” en collaboration avec la Fondation Bill et Melinda Gates et la République populaire de Chine, et la mise en place d’une task force dédiée à la lutte contre les changements climatiques.

La réunion s’est achevée le jeudi 28 juillet 2016, avec la restitution des travaux des commissions, suivie de la cérémonie de clôture présidée par le secrétaire d’Etat angolais en charge de l’eau, Ing. Luis Filipe. « L’AAE va jouer un rôle fondamental et va appuyer notre gouvernement dans la fourniture  d’eau potable et de services d’assainissement en Angola et en Afrique en général », a indiqué l’émissaire du gouvernement avant de clore officiellement les travaux.

Le CST a été suivie, le vendredi 29 juillet, de la réunion du Comité de Direction. Les prochaines assises de l’AAE se dérouleront en novembre 2016 dans un pays africain.

La deuxième session de renforcement des capacités au profit du staff de l'AAE a démarré

La deuxième session de renforcement des capacités au profit du staff de l’AAE a démarré

Les sessions de renforcement de capacités du personnel de la Direction Exécutive de l’Association Africaine de l’Eau se poursuivent. C’est le cabinet malien CICF (Centre International pour le Conseil et la Formation) qui a été désigné, à l’issu d’un appel d’offre international, pour dispenser la formation. La première phase s’est déroulée du mardi 9 au samedi 13 Août 2016. Elle a porté sur les mécanismes de suivi et évaluation des projets et programmes. Ensuite, l’équipe en charge des finances et des procédures d’achats a vu également ses capacités renforcées, puis ce fut le tour du staff de la Communication qui durant 3 jours a été formé sur les mécanismes de relations publiques et de communication.
Depuis ce lundi 29 août 2016, la deuxième phase a débuté. Elle concerne, dans un premier temps, l’équipe des finances et des procédures d’achat de l’AAE. Cette formation consiste en des présentations suivies d’échanges qui permettent de créer une véritable interaction entre les participants et le formateur. Elle porte principalement, sur trois modules, à savoir:

  • la gestion des ressources financières et des procédures comptables et administratives
  • les rapprochements bancaires
  • les procédures d’achat et la fiscalité d’Entreprise

Et comme pour la première session, le participants recevront des attestions de fin de formation délivrées par le cabinet CICF.
L’objectif au terme de ces formations est d’accroître le potentiel managérial et opérationnel du Staff de l’Association Africaine de l’Eau. Ces formations s’inscrivent, en effet, dans la composante 1 du programme AFRICAP (Africa Capacity Building Programm) qui vise à faire de l’AAE la plateforme la plus outillée en matière de gestion de politiques et programmes dans le domaine du WASH sur le continent Africain. Les formations relatives à ce programme de renforcement des capacités se poursuivent suivant le calendrier du plan d’action définit par le responsable du programme AFRICAP, appuyé par l’USAID WA-WASH. Les prochains thèmes à aborder devraient porter sur le volet informatique, avec des modules relatifs à la gestion d’un serveur et de base de données, l’administration d’une plateforme de gestion des connaissances, l’animation de webinar et de sessions de formation en ligne.

The USAID/West Africa WASH Coordinating Secretariat is organizing as part of the 2016 UNC Water and Health Conference, a side event on: “Increasing access to water services: Things we have learned and things we would do differently!”

The USAID/West Africa WASH Coordinating Secretariat is organizing as part of the 2016 UNC Water and Health Conference, a side event on: “Increasing access to water services: Things we have learned and things we would do differently!”

The side event aims to stimulate interest in the WASH sector, demonstrate the soundness of knowledge management and information sharing in WASH, and highlight the importance of working collaboratively with the beneficiaries at each step of WASH projects and programs. Such approach is more likely to ensure sustainability, in that it will urge the beneficiaries to take ownership of WASH activities after projects and programs have closed out. For more details on this side event, please read at: THE USAID WEST AFRICA WASH COORDINATING SECRETARIAT AT THE 2016 UNC WATER AND HEALTH CONFERENCE.pdf